Impact Differences among the Landing Phases of a Drop Vertical Jump in Soccer Players – Sport Mont
Enter your details:
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!

Ozlem Kilic1, Ahmet Alptekin1, Fatma Unver2, Eylem Celik1, Semih Akkaya3

1Pamukkale University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Denizli, Turkey
2Pamukkale University, Physical Theraphy and Rehabilitation High School, Denizli, Turkey
3Private Denizli Cerrahi Hospital Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Denizli, Turkey

Impact Differences among the Landing Phases of a Drop Vertical Jump in Soccer Players

Sport Mont 2018, 16(2), 9-14 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.180602


The aim of this study was to examine the differences of landing phase biomechanics between the players who had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and healthy participants during single leg drop vertical jump. In this study, 11 soccer players who had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (aged 23.0±3.6 years, height 177±5.0 cm, weight 83.8±11.7 kg) and 9 healthy soccer players( aged 22.2±2.4 years, height 178±3.0 cm, weight 74.3±6.1 kg) participated voluntarily. During the data collection phase three high speed cameras synchronized to each other and force plate were used. Visual analysis programme and MATLAB were used to calculate kinetic and kinematic variables. Landing techniques of the subjects’ were examined by flexion angle of knee, ground reaction force and moment parameters. The statistical analyses of the measured results were performed by t-test and Pearson Correlation analysis. According to the results, it was determined that peak vertical ground reaction force exhibited significant phase differences (p=0.00, and p=0.00, respectively) between the groups. Obtained results can be explained with “quadriceps avoidance” motion pattern which is characterized by decreased quadriceps activity and lower external knee flexion moment in an effort to control anterior translation of the tibia in subjects with ACL reconstruction. A better understanding of the different phases during single-leg landings can shed a light on mechanism of non-contact anterior crucaite ligament injuries therefore future researches should assess how phase differences affect drop vertical jump performance.


anterior cruciate ligament-ground reaction force-flexion angle-drop jump

View full article
(PDF – 735KB)


Abdel-Aziz, Y.I., & Karara, H.M. (1971). Direct Linear Transformation from Comparator Coordinates into Object Space Coordinates in Close-Range Photogrammetry. Urbana, IL: American Society of Photogrammetry, 1–18.

Ali, N., Robertson, D.G.E., & Rouhi, G. (2014). Sagittal plane body kinematics and kinetics during single-leg landing from increasing vertical heights and horizontal distances: Implications for risk of non-contact ACL injury. The Knee, 21(1), 38–46.

Ali, N., Rouhi, G., & Robertson, G. (2013). Gender, Vertical Height and Horizontal Distance Effects on Single-Leg Landing Kinematics: Implications for Risk of non-contact ACL Injury. Journal of Human Kinetics, 37, 27–38.

Bates, N.A., Myer, G.D., Shearn, J.T., & Hewett, T.E. (2015). Anterior cruciate ligament biomechanics during robotic and mechanical simulations of physiologic and clinical motion tasks: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Biomechanics, 30(1), 1–13.

Boden, B.P., Sheehan, F.T., Torg, J.S., & Hewett, T.E. (2010). Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: mechanisms and risk factors. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 18(9), 520–527.

Carcia, C.R., & Martin, R.L. (2007). The influence of gender on gluteus medius activity during a drop jump. Physical Therapy in Sport, 8(4), 169–176.

Čoh, M., Berić, D., & Bratić, M. (2013). The Biodynamic Analysis of Drop Jumps in Female Elite Athletes. Physical Education and Sport, 11(1), 1–8.

Ford, K.R., Myer, G.D., & Hewett, T.E. (2014). Incremental Increases in Landing Intensity. J Appl Biomech, 27(3), 215–222.

Gao, B., Cordova, M.L., & Zheng, N. (2012). Three-dimensional joint kinematics of ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed knees during stair ascent and descent. Human Movement Science, 31(1), 222–235.

Hewett, T.E., Myer, G.D., & Ford, K.R. (2005). Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions. The Journal of Knee Surgery, 18(1), 82–88.

Myer, G.D., Ford, K.R., Brent, J.L., & Hewett, T.E. (2007). Differential neuromuscular training effects on ACL injury risk factors in“high-risk” versus “low-risk” athletes. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 8, 39.

Pappas, E., Zampeli, F., Xergia, S., & Georgoulis, A.D. (2013). Lessons learned from the last 20 years of ACL-related in vivo-biomechanics research of the knee joint. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 21, 755–766.

Peng, H.T. (2011). Changes in biomechanical properties during drop jumps of incremental height. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 25(9), 2510–8.

Podraza, J.T., & White, S.C. (2010). Effect of knee flexion angle on ground reaction forces, knee moments and muscle co-contraction during an impact-like deceleration landing: Implications for the non-contact mechanism of ACL injury. Knee, 17(4), 291–295.

Pollard, C.D., Sigward, S.M., & Powers, C.M. (2007). Gender differences in hip joint kinematics and kinetics during side-step cutting maneuver. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine : Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 17(1), 38–42.

Pujol, N., Blanchi, M.P.R., & Chambat, P. (2007). The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries among competitive Alpine skiers: a 25-year investigation. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(7), 1070–1074.

Reichl, I., Auzinger, W., Schmiedmayer, H., & Weinmüller, E. (2010). Reconstructing the knee joint mechanism from kinematic data, 16(5), 403–415.

Robınson, M.A., Donnelly, C.J., Tsao, J., & Vanrenterghem, J. (2014). Impact of Knee Modeling Approach on Indicators and Classification of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(7), 1269–1276.

Schroeder, M.J., Krishnan, C., & Dhaher, Y.Y. (2015). The influence of task complexity on knee joint kinetics following ACL reconstruction. Clinical Biomechanics, 30(8), 852–859.

Shin, C.S., Chaudhari, A.M., & Andriacchi, T.P. (2009). The effect of isolated valgus moments on ACL strain during single-leg landing: a simulation study. Journal of Biomechanics, 42(3), 280–5.

Siegmund, J.A., Huxel, K.C., & Swanik, C.B. (2009). Compensatory Mechanisms in Basketball Players With Jumper ’s Knee. J Sport Rehabil, 17, 358–71.

Sugimoto, D., Alentorn-Geli, E., Mendiguchía, J., Samuelsson, K., Karlsson, J., & Myer, G.D. (2015). Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Characteristics of Male Athletes: Implications for the Development of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Programs. Sports Medicine, 45(6), 809–822.

Wang, L.I. (2011). The lower extremity biomechanics of single- and double-leg stop-jump tasks. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(1), 151–156.

Weihmann, T., Karner, M., Full, R.J., & Blickhan, R. (2010). Jumping kinematics in the wandering spider Cupiennius salei. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology, 196(6), 421–438.

Zahradnik, D., Uchytil, J., Farana, R., & Jandacka, D. (2014). Ground Reaction Force and Valgus Knee Loading during Landing after a Block in Female Volleyball Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 40(1), 67–75.