1University of Presov, Faculty of Sports, Department of Sports Kinanthropology, Presov, Slovakia
2HC Kosice, Kosice, Slovakia
3University of Presov, Faculty of Sports, Department of Sports Educology and Humanistics, Presov, Slovakia
Examination of Age-related Core Stability and Dynamic Balance in Hockey Players
The purpose of the study was to assess core stability and to determine age-related differences in the unilaterality of limb movements in hockey players. The sample included 152 hockey players aged 12 to 35 years. Every player performed the upper quarter and the lower quarter Y-balance tests. Performances of players showed high degree of individuality, which was expressed as the composite score. The difference greater than 4 cm in movements performed by a left or right limb indicates imbalance and higher risk of injury. Of 152 players, 27 and 26 players showed a difference higher than 4 cm for the lower quarter and the upper quarter, respectively. Of all age categories, 61% of senior players showed muscle imbalance. This may have been caused by factors present at school age because 52% of U13 players showed imbalance. We conducted statistical analysis to determine differences for each of the directions in relation to limb length. The cross-sectional data have shown non significant differences between age categories studied. For the development of ice hockey players, it is important to eliminate movement imbalance. The results have shown that the category at risk includes the U13 players, who may suffer from movement imbalance in the senior category.
injury, muscle and movement imbalance, core, Y balance test, lower quarter, upper quarter
Abbasi, A., Tabrizi, H.B., Sarvestani, H.J., & Rahmanpourmoghaddam, J. (2012). Dynamic Balance in Inactive Elder Maleschanges after Eight Weeks Functional and Core Stabilization Training. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 11(3), 304-310. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.2.7426.
Barcalová, M., Živčák, J., Lenková, R., Vojtaško, Ľ., Liptáková, E., Rajťúková, V., & Krajňáková, V. (2017). The use of noninvasive diagnostic methods in the assessment of postural changes in university students. Lékař a technika, 47(1), 23-29.
Bendíková, E, Uvinha, R.R., & Marko, M. (2016). Pain as manifestation of functional disorders of musculoskeletal system. Sport Science, 9(1), 90-95.
Bompa, T., & Carrera, M. (2015). Conditioning Young Athletes. Human Kinetics.
Breen, E.O., Howell, D.R., Stracciolini, A., Dawkins, C., & Meehan, W.P. (2016). Examination of Age-Related Differences on Clinical Tests of Postural Stability. Sports Health, 8(3), 244-249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738116633437.
Brumitt, J., Matheson, W.J., & Meira, P.E. (2013). Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part I: Current Concepts in Assessment and Intervention. Sports Health, 5(6), 504-509. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738113502451.
Di Stefano, L.J., Blackburn, J.T., Marshall, S.W., Guskiewicz, K.M., Garett, W.E., & Padua, D.A. (2011). Effects of an age-specific anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program on lower extremity biomechanics in children. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(5), 949-957. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510392015.
Gamble, P. (2007). An Integrated Approach to Training Core Stability. Strength and conditioning journal, 29(1), 58-68.https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200702000-00010.
Gonell, C.A., Romero, P.A.J., & Soler, M.L. (2015). Relationship between the Y Balance test scores and soft tissue injury incidence in a soccer team. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 10(7), 955-966.
Gorman, P.P., Butler, R.J., Plisky, P.J., & Kiesel, K.B. (2012). Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: reliability and performance comparison between genders in active adults. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(11), 3043-3048. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182472fdb.
Hibbs, A.E., Thompson, K.G., French, D., Wrigley, A., & Spears, I. (2008). Optimizing performance by improving core stability and core strength. Sports medicine, 38(12), 995-1008. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838120-00004.
Imai, A., Kaneoka, K., Okubo, Y., & Shiraki, H. (2014). Comparison of the immediate effect of different types of trunk exercise on the star excursion balance test in male adolescent soccer players. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 9(4), 428-435.
Jesenský, M, & Kokinda, M. (2017). Svalstvo telesné hojadra v reflexi I hokej ovejvýkonnosti: Vydavateľstvo Prešovskejuniverzity.
McGill, S., J. Andersen, & Cannon, J. (2015). Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(4), pp. 419-426. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.946437.
McLean, C. (2006). Core stability: Does existing evidence support the concept? [online]. Cardiff: The University of Wales institute. Retrieved November 23, 2014, from http://www.marylebonephysio.com/uploads/File/core-stability---does-existing-evidence-support-the-concept-christopher-mclean-%28full-document%29.pdf
Myer, G.D., Ford, K.R., Brent, J.L., & Hewett T.E. (2006). The effects of plyometric vs. dynamic stabilization and balance training on power, balance, and landing force in female athletes. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(2), 345-358. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-17955.1.-
Skahan, S. (2016). Total hockey training. Human Kinetics.
Smith, C.A., Chimera, N., & Warren, M. (2015). Association of Y balance test reach asymmetry and injury in division I athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(1), 136-141. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000380.
Stamm, L. (2010). Laura Stamm’s Power Skating (4th ed.). Human Kinetics.
Twist, P. (2007). Complete conditioning for hockey. Human Kinetics.
Tyler, F.T., Nicholas, J.S., Campbell, J.R., & McHugh, P.M. (2001). The Association of Hip Strength and Flexibility with the Incidence of Adductor Muscle Strains in Professional Ice Hockey Players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(2), 124-128. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465010290020301.
Westrick, R.B., Miller, J.M., Carow, S.D., & Gerber, J.P. (2012). Exploration of the Y-Balance Test for Assessment of Upper Quarter Closed Kinetic Chain Performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(2), 139-147.
Willardson, J.M. (2007). Core stability training: application to sport conditioning programs. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 979-985. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-20255.1