1Kyung Hee University, Department of Golf Industry, College of Physical Education, Yongin, Korea
2Kyung Hee University, Department of Sports Taekwondo, Graduate School of Physical Education, Yongin, Korea
Public Perception of Fine Dust: A Comparative Research of Participation Motives in Outdoor Physical Activities Depending on Fine Dust Concentration
Since the concentration of fine dust concentration in the atmosphere is rapidly increasing, recently to severe levels, and it has a fatal effect on human health, a change in people’s awareness of outdoor physical activities is necessary. Nevertheless, people still take part in outdoor physical activities, even on days when a fine dust risk alert is issued, which shows that people’s awareness of the danger of fine dust to their health is still lacking. This study used 341 surveys that was conducted to analyze and compare people’s motives for participation in physical activities in relation to the fine dust level. After an exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis using SPSS 23.0, the level of fine dust concentration in the atmosphere was divided into “dangerous” and “normal,” while the respondents to the survey were divided into a “with fine dust group” and a “without fine dust group.” People’s participation motives were compared and analyzed by using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). People who participated in outdoor physical activities on days with a severe fine dust concentration showed higher scores for the motives of Competition, Appearance, Physical Condition, and Mastery, while those who participate in outdoor physical activities on days without a find dust alert showed higher scores for the motive of Psychological Condition. Countermeasures against the danger of fine dust that are more effective should be established by analyzing the motives of people who participate in outdoor physical activities despite the dangerous level of fine dust concentration in the atmosphere.
particulate matter ( PM10 ), physical activity, participation motives, public health
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Berry, H.L., Waite, T.D., Dear, K.B.G., Capon, A.G., & Murray, V. (2018). The case for systems thinking about climate change and mental health. Nature Climate Change, 8, 282-290.
Dishman, R.K. (2003). The impact of behavior on quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 12, 43-49.
Egli, T., Bland, H.W., Melton, B.F., & Czech, D.R. (2011) Influence of age, sex and race on college students’ exercise motivation of physical activity. Journal of American College Health, 59(5), 399-406.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Frederick-Recascino, C., & Morris, T. (2004). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise. In Morris, T. & Summers, J. (Eds.), Sport Psychology: Theory, applications and issues (121-151). Australia: John Wiley & Sons.
Gaston-Gayles, J.L. (2005) The factor structure and reliability of the Student Athletes’ Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ). Journal of College Student Development, 46, 317-327.
Henderson, K.A., & Bialeschki, M.D. (2008). Leisure and active lifestyles: Research reflections. Leisure Sciences, 27, 355-365.
Ingen, E.V., & Eijck, K.V. (2009). Leisure and social capital: An analysis of types of company and activities. Leisure Sciences, 31, 192-206.
Jun, J., & Kyle, G.T. (2011). Understanding the role of identity in the constraint negotiation process. Leisure Sciences, 33, 309-331.
Kang, H.H. (2016). Die rechtliche Untersuchung uber Feinstaub fur den Schutz des Gesundheitsrechts der Burger. Korean Environmental Association, 38(1), 159-193.
Kemperman, A.D.A.M., & Timmermans, H.J.P. (2008). Influence of socio-demographics and residential environment on leisure activity participation. Leisure Sciences, 30, 306-324.
Kim, J., Dattilo, J., & Heo, J. (2011). Education and recreation activities of older Asian immigrants. Educational Gerontology, 37, 336-350.
Kim, P.W. (2018). Operating an environmentally sustainable city using fine dust level big data measured at individual elementary schools. Sustainable Cities and Society, 37, 1-6.
Kleiber, D., Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1986). The experience of leisure in adolescence. Journal of Leisure Research, 18(3), 169-176.
Kobriger, S., Smith, J., Hollman, J., & Smith, A. (2006). The contribution of golf to daily physical activity recommendations: How many steps does it take to complete a round of golf? Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 81, 1041-1043.
Korea Environment Corporation (2018). Reinforced Fine Dust (PM2.5) Standard as high as that of US and Japan. Retrieved 12/23, 2018, from http://www.me.go.kr/home/web/board/read.do?menuId=286&boardMasterId=1&boardCategoryId=39&boardId=849570
Kwak, K. (2019). Invasion of fine dust, disease and coping methods. Retrieved 04/23, 2019, from http://www.civicnews.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=21216
Lloyd-Jones, D.M., Yuling, H., Labarthe, D., Mozaffarian, L.J., Appel, L., & Van Horn, K. (2010). Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: The american heart association’s strategic impact goal, through 2020 and beyond. Circulation, 121, 586-613. doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192703
Ministry of Environment. (n.d.). Fine dust control measures. Retrieved 12/12, 2018, from http://www.me.go.kr/issue/finedust4/
Molanorouzi, K., Khoo, S., & Morris, T. (2014). Validating the physical activity and leisure motivation scale (PALMS). BMC Public Health, 14, 1074.
Mouratadis, M., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Sideridis, G. (2008). The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: Evidence for a motivational model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30, 240-268.
Murcia, J.A.M, Coll, D.G-C., Martin-Albo, J., & Gimeno, E.C. (2010). Motivation and performance in physical education: An experimental test. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9, 79-85.
Noh, H., Lee, S., & Yu, J. (2018). Identifying effective fugitive dust control measures for construction projects in Korea. Sustainability, 10(4), 1206.
Ntoumanis, N. (2005) A prospective study of participation in optional school physical education using a self-determination theory framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 444-453.
Nunnally, J.C., & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Parfitt, G., Pavey, T., & Rowlands, A.V. (2009). Children’s physical activity and psychological health: The relevance of intensity. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 1038-1043
Park, J., Park, E.H., Schauer, J.J., Yi, S-M., Heo, J. (2018). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) measured in Seoul, Korea. Environment International, 117, 276-283.
Priest, N., Armstrong, R., Doyle, J., & Waters, E. (2008). Interventions implemented through sporting organizations for increasing participation in sport. Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, 3, 1-15.
Roychowdhury, D. (2018). A comprehensive measure of participation motivation: Examining and validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS). Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 13(1), 231-247. doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2018.131.20
Stone, E.A., Yoon, S-C., & Schauer, J.J. (2011). Chemical characterization of fine and coarse particles in Gosan, Korea during spring time dust events. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 11, 31-43.
Trenberth, L., & Dewe, P. (2002). The important of leisure as a means of coping with work related stress: An exploratory study. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 15, 59-72.
Waldron, J.J., & Dieser, R.B. (2010) Perspectives of fitness and health in college men and women. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 65-78.
Weiss, M.R., & Ferrer-Caja, E. (2002). Motivational orientations and sport behavior. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 101-170). Champaign, IL, US: Human Kinetics.
Yonhap News (2019). Fine Dust ② Worse or Better than in the past? Retrieved 1/23, 2019, from https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20190117053800502?input=1179m