Enter your details:
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!

Flavio Ceglie1

1University of Bari, Department of Pathological Anatomy, DETO, Bari, Italy

Dispositional Factors and Sportsmanship in Italian Athletes

Sport Mont 2019, 17(3), 109-112 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.191016


The research focused on dispositional factors determining fair play is a matter of debate. In this vein, sportsmanship has been considered to be a multidimensional construct reflecting how athletes are inclined to play sport. Previous investigations found significant associations between motivational orientations and sportsmanship. To date, little attention has been paid to the construct of the trait of self-control in predicting sportsmanship and to the role of gender differences in this relationship. This study analysed not only the associations between task and ego orientation, trait self-control and sportsmanship in order to determine the best predictor of sportsmanship, but also to verify whether the linkages were confirmed in the gender subgroups. Competitive level athletes (N=674, 387 males and 287 female; M=27.23 years, SD=10.01) completed a questionnaire including the scales of goal orientation, self-control and sportsmanship. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and regression analyses were applied to the data. The results indicated positive associations between task orientation, self-control and sportsmanship, and between task orientation and self-control. No significant association emerged between ego orientation and self-control in the total sample and in the gender subgroups. Sportsmanship was influenced positively by task orientation and age in all groups and negatively by ego orientation in the total sample and in the male group. A weak but significant relationship between trait self-control and sportsmanship was found only in the total sample. These findings suggested further analyses of the mediating/moderating role played by self-control in the indirect relationships between goal orientations and sportsmanship in relation to gender differences.


sportsmanship, task orientation, ego orientation, trait self-control, gender differences

View full article
(PDF – 130KB)


Bauer, I.M., & Baumeister, R.F. (2011). Self-regulatory strength.. In K.D. Vohs & R.F. Baumeister (Eds.). Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications (pp. 64-82). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Bortoli, L, Bertollo, M., Hanin, Y., & Robazza, C. (2012). Striving for excellence: A multi-action plan intervention model for Shooters. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 693-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.006

Bortoli, L., & Robazza, C. (2005). Italian version of the task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire. Perceptual and motor skills, 100(1), 43-50. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.100.1.43-50

Corrion, K., d’Arripe-Longueville, F., Chalabaev, A., Schiano-Lomoriello, S., Roussel, P., & Cury, F. (2010). Effect of Implicit Theories on Judgment of Cheating Acceptability in Physical Educa-tion. The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals. Journal of Sport Sciences, 28(8), 909-919. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.484065

De Palo, V., Monacis, L., Carlucci, L., Tanucci, G., & Sinatra, M. (2019). Self-control and aggressiveness as mediating factors between motivational orientations and sportspersonship. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, in press. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.143.15

Duda, J.L., & Nicholls, J. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 290-299. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.290

Gonçalves, C.E., Silva, M.J.C., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M., & Cumming, S.P. (2010). The effect of achievement goals on moral attitudes in young athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences and Medi-cine, 9(4), 605-611.

Lucidi, F., Zelli, A., Mallia, L., Nicolais, G., Lazuras, L., & Hagger, M.S. (2017). Moral attitudes predict cheating and gamesmanship behaviors among competitive tennis players. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 571. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00571

Monacis, L., de Palo, V., & Sinatra, M. (2014). Sportspersonship behaviours: An exploratory investigation of antecedents. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 45(3), 231-245. https://doi.org/10.7352/IJSP2014.45.231

Monacis, L., de Palo, V., & Sinatra, M. (2015). Motivational factors related to aggression within martial arts contexts [Factores motivacionales relacionados con la agresividad en las artes marcial-es]. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 24(1), 163-169.

Nicholls, J. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sofia, R., & Cruz, J.F.A. (2016). Exploring individual differences in the experience of anger in sport competition: The importance of cognitive, emotional, and motivational variables. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28, 350-366. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1121170

Tangney, J.P., Baumeister, R.F., & Boone, A.L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2), 271-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

Vallerand, R.J., Brière, N.M., Blanchard, C., & Provencher, P. (1997). Development and validation of the multidimensional sportspersonship orientations scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19(2), 197-206. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.19.2.197