Enter your details:
Name:
E-mail:
 
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!


Yasin Akinci1, Sadettin Kirazci1

1Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Education, Physical Education and Sports Department, Ankara, Turkey

Effects of Visual, Verbal, Visual + Verbal Feedback on Learning of Dribbling and Lay-up Skill

Sport Mont 2020, 18(1), Ahead of Print | DOI: 10.26773/smj.200211

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine how different feedback conditions affect learning skills. Two-task dribbling, continuous skill, and lay-up discrete skill of basketball were selected, and participants were randomly grouped and assigned to verbal, visual + verbal, and visual feedback groups. Two experts evaluated the performances of the participants. First, a pre-test was applied to form the groups, then a day later subjects performed both task 15 times (5 trials, 3 sets) and received feedback after every 5 trials for three consecutive days; 72 hours later, a retention test was applied to test learning. A 3 × 2 (Group × Condition) ANOVA was used to calculate the differences between the groups in the pre-test and post-test conditions. The results indicated no significant difference between the groups for the two skills in the pre-test, but the post-test results indicated significant difference among the verbal to visual + verbal group, visual to visual + verbal group and verbal and visual group. The total difference scores of the groups were also significant; the visual + verbal condition indicated the greatest improvement, whereas the visual condition indicated the least improvement in skills. The study indicated that the verbal feedback for novice group caused better improvement and retention of the dribbling and lay-up basketball skills compared to the visual feedback group.

Keywords

skill learning, basketball, videotape feedback, verbal feedback



View full article
(PDF – 143KB)

References

Aiken, C.A., Fairbrother, J.T., & Post, P.G. (2012). The effects of self-controlled video feedback on the learning of the basketball set shot. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 338.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Macmillan.

Barzouka, K., Sotiropoulos, K., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2015). The effect of feedback through an expert model observation on performance and learning the pass skill in volleyball and motivation. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 15(3), 407-416.

Baundry, L., Leroy, D., & Chollet, D. (2006). The effect of combined self- and expert-modelling on the performance of the double leg circle on the pommel horse. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(19), 1055-1063. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500432243

Bjork, R.A. (1988). Retrieval practice and the maintenance of knowledge. Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues, 1, 396-401.

Boyce, B.A., Markos, N.J., Jenkins, D.W., & Loftus, J.R. (1996). How should feedback be delivered? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 67(1), 18-22.

Clark, S.E., & Ste-Marie, D.M. (2007). The impact of self-as-a-model interventions on children’s self-regulation of learning and swimming performance. Journal of sports sciences, 25(5), 577-586.

Coker, C.A., Fischman, M.G., & Oxendine, J.B. (2006). Motor skill learning for effective coaching and performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed., pp. 18-40). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Çamur, H. (2001). Basketbolda dribling ve turnike becerilerinin öğretiminde canlı, videolu ve canlı+ videolu dönütün başarıya etkisi. Yayımlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi.

Darden, G.F. (1999). Videotape feedback for student learning and performance: A learning-stages approach. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 70(9), 40-45.

Giannousi, M., Mountaki, F., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2017). The effects of verbal and visual feedback on performance and learning freestyle swimming in novice swimmers. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology, 49(1), 65-73.

Haguenauer, M., Fargier, P., Legreneur, P., Dufour, A.B., Cogerino, G., Begon, M., & Monteil, K.M. (2005). Short-term effects of using verbal instructions and demonstration at the beginning of learning a complex skill in figure skating. Perceptual and motor skills, 100(1), 179-191.

Hubwieser, P. (2007). Didaktik der Informatik: Grundlagen, Konzepte, Beispiele. Springer-Verlag.

Jennings, C.T., Reaburn, P., & Rynne, S.B. (2013). The effect of a self-modelling video intervention on motor skill acquisition and retention of a novice track cyclist’s standing start performance. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 8(3), 467-480.

Magill, R.A. (1998). Knowledge is more than we can talk about: Implicit learning in motor skill acquisition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69(2), 104-110.

Magill, R.A. (2001). Augmented feedback in motor skill acquisition. Handbook of sport psychology, 86-114.

Miller, G., & Gabbard, C. (1988). Effects of visual aids on acquisition of selected tennis skills. Perceptual and motor skills, 67(2), 603-606.

Niegemann, H.M., Hessel, S., Hochscheid-Mauel, D., Aslanski, K., Deimann, M., & Kreuzberger, G. (2013). Kompendium E-learning. Springer-Verlag

Ram, N., & McCullagh, P. (2003). Self-modeling: Influence on psychological responses and physical performance. The Sport Psychologist, 17(2), 220-241.

Razali, R., Suwarganda, E., & Zawaki, I. (2012). The effect of direct video feedback on performance of tennis serve. In ISBS-Conference Proceedings (241-244), Melbourne.

Rink, J.E. (2002). Teaching physical education for learning (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Russell, D. (1991). The effects of prototypic examples and video replay on adolescent girls’ acquisition of basic field hockey skills. Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia.

Salmoni, A.W., Schmidt, R.A., & Walter, C.B. (1984). Knowledge of results and motor learning: a review and critical reappraisal. Psychological bulletin, 95(3), 355.

Schmidt, R.A. (1991). Frequent augmented feedback can degrade learning: Evidence and interpretations. In Tutorials in motor neuroscience (59-75). Springer, Dordrecht.

Schmidt, R.A., & Wrisberg, C.A. (2000). Motor learning and performance: a problem-based learning approach (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Schmidt, R.A., & Lee, T.D. (1999). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (3rd ed.). Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Schmidt, R.A., & Lee, T.D. (2005). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Schön, S., & Ebner, M. (2013). Gute Lernvideos:... so gelingen Web-Videos zum Lernen. BoD–Books on Demand.

Smith, R.E. (2006). Positive reinforcement, performance feedback, and performance enhancement. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed., 41-57). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Tzetzis, G., Mantis, K., Zachopoulou, E., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (1999). The effect of modeling and verbal feedback on skill learning. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 36(3), 137-141.

Utley, A. (2018). Motor Control, Learning and Development: Instant Notes. Routledge.

Whiting, H.J. (1988). Imitation and the learning of complex cyclical actions. In Advances in psychology, 50, 381-401. North-Holland.

Williams, A.M., & Hodges, N.J. (2004). Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice. Routledge.

Zetou, E., Tzetzis, G., Vernadakis, N., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2002). Modeling in learning two volleyball skills. Perceptual and motor skills, 94(3_suppl), 1131-1142.