1Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Education, Physical Education and Sports Department, Ankara, Turkey
Effects of Visual, Verbal, Visual + Verbal Feedback on Learning of Dribbling and Lay-up Skill
The purpose of this study is to examine how different feedback conditions affect learning skills. Two-task dribbling, continuous skill, and lay-up discrete skill of basketball were selected, and participants were randomly grouped and assigned to verbal, visual + verbal, and visual feedback groups. Two experts evaluated the performances of the participants. First, a pre-test was applied to form the groups, then a day later subjects performed both task 15 times (5 trials, 3 sets) and received feedback after every 5 trials for three consecutive days; 72 hours later, a retention test was applied to test learning. A 3 × 2 (Group × Condition) ANOVA was used to calculate the differences between the groups in the pre-test and post-test conditions. The results indicated no significant difference between the groups for the two skills in the pre-test, but the post-test results indicated significant difference among the verbal to visual + verbal group, visual to visual + verbal group and verbal and visual group. The total difference scores of the groups were also significant; the visual + verbal condition indicated the greatest improvement, whereas the visual condition indicated the least improvement in skills. The study indicated that the verbal feedback for novice group caused better improvement and retention of the dribbling and lay-up basketball skills compared to the visual feedback group.
skill learning, basketball, videotape feedback, verbal feedback
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