Enter your details:
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!

Yeter Aytül Dağlı Ekmekçi1, Nilsen Kundakcı2, Ridvan Ekmekci1

1Pamukkale University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Department of Sport Management, Denizli, Turkey
2Pamukkale University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Denizli, Turkey

Performance Evaluation of Basketball Referees with an Integrated MCDM Approach

Sport Mont 2020, 18(2), 95-102 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.200613


Basketball referees have to make decisions quickly and accurately under pressure and stress within a limited time. Their decisions affect the results of the match. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performances of the referees and give them feedback. This study aims to propose an MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making) approach to evaluate the performances of basketball referees for the observers and instructors who evaluate officials’ performance. AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and WASPAS (Weighted Aggregated Sum Product Assessment) methods are integrated to evaluate the performance of basketball referees. Criteria weights are considered as equal in the current performance evaluation system of the basketball referees. In this study, the weights of the performance evaluation criteria were determined with the help of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method, taking into consideration the fact that the criteria will have different importance degrees. Then, the ranking of the basketball referees according to their performances was obtained using the WASPAS method. The obtained rankings of referees by the help of the proposed integrated approach is different from the ranking obtained with the existing basketball referee evaluation system. This is done because, in the proposed approach, weights of different importance are given to the criteria with the AHP method; also, for ranking the referees, the WASPAS method is used. The proposed approach will improve the referee evaluation process and quality. In this manner, the referees’ performance can be discussed more objectively. Objective evaluation criteria will also improve the performance of referees by strengthening the trust of the referees in the system.


performance evaluation, basketball referee, MCDM, AHP, WASPAS

View full article
(PDF – 312KB)


Anshel, M.H. (2012). Sport psychology: From theory to practice (5th ed.). San Francisco. CA: Benjamin-Cummings.

Anshel, M.H., Sutarso T., Ekmekci R., & Saraswati I.W., (2014). A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees. Journal of Sport Sciences, 32 (2), 13-41.

Bingham, A. (1998). Çocuklarda Problem Çözme Yeteneklerinin Geliştirilmesi. (Development of Problem Solving Skills in Children). Milli Eğitim Basımevi, İstanbul.

Caputo, A.C., Pelagagge, P.M., & Salini, P. (2013). AHP-based Methodology for Selecting Safety Devices of Industrial Machinery. Safety Science, 53, 202–218.

Catteeuw, P., Helsen, W., Gilis, B., & Wagemans, J. (2009). Decision-making skills, role specificity, and deliberate practice in association football refereeing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27 (11), 1125-1136, https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903079179

Chakraborty, S., Bhattacharyya, O. Zavadskas E.K., & Antucheviciene, J. (2015). Application of WASPAS method as an optimization tool in non-traditional machining processes. Information Technology and Control, 44 (1), 77-88.

Chakraborty, S. & Zavadskas, E.K. (2014). Applications of WASPAS method in manufacturing decision making. Informatica, 25 (1), 1–20.

Dosseville, F., Laborde, S., & Raab, M. (2011). Contextual and personal motor experience effects in judo referees’ decisions. Sport Psychologist, 25 (1), 67-81.

Downward, P. & Jones, M. (2007). Effects of crowd size on referee decisions: Analysis of the FA Cup. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 14, 1541-1545. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410701275193.

Guillén, F. & Feltz, D.L. (2011). A conceptual model of referee efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 2 (25), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00025

Hancock D.J. & Ste-Marie, D.M. (2013). Gaze behaviors and decision making accuracy of higher- and lower-level ice hockey referees. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14 (1), 66-71. doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.08.002

Heppner, P.P. & Krauskopf, C.J. (1987). The Integration of Personel Problem

Solving Processes within Counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 15, 371-447.

Johnson, J.G. (2006). Cognitive modeling of decision making in sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7 (6), 631-652. doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.009

Karabašević, D., Stanujkić, D., Urošević, S., & Maksimović, M. (2016). An approach to personnel selection based on SWARA and WASPAS methods. Journal of Economics, Management and Informatics, 7 (1), 1-11.

Lane, A.M., Nevill, A.M., Ahmad, N.S., & Balmer, N. (2006). Soccer referee decision-making: ‘shall I blow the whistle?’ Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 243-253

MacMahon, C., Starkes, J. & Deakin, J. (2007). Referee decision making in a video-based infraction detection task: application and training considerations. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2 (3), 257–265. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795407782233164

Mark M., M. Bryant, F.B., & Lehman, D.R. (1983). Perceived injustice and sports violence. In J. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.

Mellick, M.C., Fleming, S., Bull, P., & Laugharne, E.J. (2005). Identifying Best Practice for Referee Decision Communication in Association and Rugby Union Football. Football Studies, 8 (1), 42-57.

Plessner, H., Schweizer, G., Brand, R., & O’Hare, D. (2009). A multiple-cue learning approach as the basis for understanding and improving soccer referees’ decision making. Progress in Brain Research, 174, 151-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(09)01313-2.

Reilly, T. & Gregson, W. (2006). Special populations: The referee and assistant referee. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24 (7), 795-801. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500483089

Russo, R.F.S.M. & Camanho R. (2015). Criteria in AHP: a systematic review of literature. Procedia Computer Science, 55, 1123–1132.

Saaty, T.L. (2013). Mathematical Principles of Decision Making: The Complete Theory of the Analytic Hierarchy Process. RWS Publications, USA.

Saaty, T.L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Schweizer, G. & Plessner, H. (2011). A video-based training method for improving soccer referees’ intuitive decision-making skills. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 429–442. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2011.555346

Solomon, A.V., Paik, C., Alhauli, A., & Phan, T. (2011) A decision support system for the professional soccer referee in time-sensitive operations, Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Systems and Information Engineering Design Symposium (35-40), University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Stojic, G., Stevic, Ž., Antucheviciene, J., Pamucar, D., & Vasiljevic, M. (2018). A novel rough WASPAS approach for supplier selection in a company manufacturing PVC carpentry products. Information, 9 (121), 1-16.

Urosevic, S. Karabasevic, D., Stanujkic, D., & Maksimovic, M. (2017). An approach to personnel selection in the tourism industry based on the SWARA and the WASPAS methods. Economic Computation and Economic Cybernetics Studies and Research, 51 (1), 75-88.

Vaidya, O.S. & Kumar, S. (2006). Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 169, 1–29.

Wang, L., Chu, J., & Wu, J., (2007). Selection of optimum maintenance strategies based on a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Production Economics, 107, 151–163.

Zavadskas, E.K., Turskis, Z. Antucheviciene, J., & Zakarevicius, A. (2012). Optimization of weighted aggregated sum product assessment. Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 6, 3-6.