1Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Physical Education, Sports and Tourism, St. Petersburg, Russia
Differentiated Training Model for Marathon Runners on Building Tempo and Speed Endurance Based On the Types of Energy Metabolism
This article discusses the issues of improving the quality of the training process for marathon runners in competition preparation by utilizing the application of a differentiated training model based on the types of energy metabolism for the development of tempo and speed endurance. The studies conducted have shown that marathon runners of different energy metabolism types adapt differently to competitive loads, as well as to speed and tempo development. The process of adaptation of their functional systems (which define tempo and speed endurance) occurs mainly due to the differentiation of the tools and methods used correspondingly to the type of energy metabolism. It allows not only for the more effective expansion of the cardiorespiratory system capabilities but also for bringing athletes to a higher level of tempo and speed endurance development. As a result of the study, it was revealed that for aerobic athletes, tempo endurance should be developed by using standard continuous training, while speed endurance should be developed through repeated training. Tempo endurance in anaerobic marathon runners should be developed by using interval training, while speed endurance should be developed through non-maximal effort training with a normalized number of distance segments. Tempo endurance in marathon runners of the mixed type of energy metabolism should be developed by using the variable training method, while speed endurance should be developed through a combination of non-maximal effort and repeated training with a fixed number of distance segments.
marathon running; muscle activity; types of energy metabolism; training of marathon runners
Auersperger, I., Jurov, I., Laurencak, K., Leskosek, B., & Skof, B. (2020). The effect of a short-term training period on physiological parameters and running performance in recreationally active female runners. Sport Mont, 18 (1), 69-74. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.200212
Bakaev, V.V., Bolotin, A.E., & Aganov, S.S. (2016). Physical training complex application technology to prepare rescuers for highland operations. Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury, 6, 6-8.
Bakayev, V., Bolotin, A., & You, C. (2018). Reaction of vegetative nervous system to loads in female long-distance runners with different fitness level. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 13 (2), 245 - 252. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2018.13.Proc2.09
Bakayev, V., Vasilyeva, V., Kalmykova, S., & Razinkina, E. (2018). Theory of physical culture - a massive open online course in educational process. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18 (1), 293-297. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2018.01039
Bohuslavska, V., Furman, Y., Pityn, M., Galan, Y., & Nakonechnyi, I. (2017). Improvement of the physical preparedness of canoe oarsmen by applying different modes of training loads. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17 (2), 797-803. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.02121
Bolotin, A., & Bakayev, V. (2016). Factors that determine high efficiency in developing speed and strength abilities of female hurdlers. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 16 (3), 910-913. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2016.03143
Bolotin, A., & Bakayev, V. (2017a). Method for Training of Long Distance Runners Taking into Account Bioenergetic Types of Energy Provision for Muscular Activity. In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support, 126-131.
Bolotin, А., & Bakayev V. (2017b). Peripheral circulation indicators in veteran trail runners. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 29 (6), 1092-1094. https://doi.org/10.1589/jpts.29.1092
Boullosa, D.A., Tuimil, J.L., Leicht, A.S., & Crespo-Salgado, J.J. (2009). Parasympathetic modulation and running performance in distance runners. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23 (2), 626–631. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818dc44e
Dushanin, S.A. (1986). System of multi-factor Express diagnostics of functional readiness of athletes at current and operational medical and pedagogical control: Physical Culture and sport.
Manzi, V., Iellamo, F., Impellizzeri, F., D’Ottavio, S., & Castagna, C. (2009). Relation between individualized training impulses and performance in distance runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41 (11), 2090–2096. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a6a959
Pieralisi, M., Di Mattia, V., Petrini, V., De Leo, A., Manfredi, G., Russo, P., Scalise, L., … Cerri, G. (2017). An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device). Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 17 (2), 381. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020381
Przybyła, K., Żebrowska, A., Posmysz, A., Manowska, B., Pokora, I., & Żak, A. (2016). Long-distance Running and its Effects on Cardiorespiratory Adaptation and Physiological Strain in Marathon Runners. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 13 (1), 81–87. https://doi.org/10.18276/cej.2016.1-08
Skof, B., Hadzic, V., & Dervisevic, E. (2012). Frequency and risk factors for overuse injuries of lower extremity in slovenian recreative runners. Sport Mont, X (34-36), 354-359.
Vesterinen, V., Häkkinen, K., Hynynen, E., Mikkola, J., Hokka, L. & Nummela, A. (2013). Heart rate variability in prediction of individual adaptation to endurance training in recreational endurance runners. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23 (2), 171-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01365.x