1University of Naples Parthenope, Department of Science and Technology, Naples, Italy
Anabolic Steroid use in Sports and in Physical Activity: Overview and Analysis
Anabolic steroids,commonly referred to as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), are a family of hormones that comprises testosterone. Exposure to these substances can result in damage to human health, such as liver cancer, and to the environment. This class of doping substances cause an extensive increase in the muscular massandis being used to improve athletic performance. Athletes are still using them to increase physical performance and bodybuilders are using them to improve size and cosmetic appearance. For performance enhancing use, these substances generally used without interruption and during several weeks preceding a competition. The preferred method is “piling up” oral ingestion and injections.This type of treatment has been used in sport medicine to manage a variety of joint, tendon and soft tissue injuries.The long-term side effects of anabolic steroids are severe and will depend on dosage and duration. In particular, early death from cardiovascular disease, sterility in men and, in women, masculinization and possible irreversible effects constitute the most serious dangers. More recently, studies have suggested that psychological and behavioral changes and addiction may result from chronic anabolic steroid abuse. AAS were the first identified doping agents that have ergogenic effects and are on the International Olympic Committee’s list of banned substances. This paper identify a) AAS increasing represent only one of many different classes of agents it is important to used by recreational bodybuilders and by athletes in the 21st century b) their side effects c) their effects on sports performance c) phenomenon of polypharmacy.
anabolic androgenic steroid, sport, testosterone, doping, educational programme
Ahrens, B.D., Starcevic, B., & Butch, A.W. (2012). Detection of prohibited substances by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for sports doping control. Methods Molecolar Biology, 902, 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-61779-934-1_10
Anawalt, B.D. (2018). Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 464(15), 21-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.09.027
Botrè, F. (2008). New and old challenges of sport drug testing. Journal Mass Spectrom, 43, 903-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/jms.1455.
Broeder, C.E., Quindry, J., Brittingham, K., Panton, L., Thomson, J., Appakondu, S., Breuel, K., Byrd, R., Douglas, J., Earnest, C., Mitchell, C., Olson, M., Roy, T., & Yarlagadda. C. (2000). The Andro Project: physiological and hormonal influences of androstenedione supplementation in men 35 to 65 years old participating in a high-intensity resistance training program. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160(20), 3093-3104.
Calatayud, V.A., Alcaide, G.G., Zurian, J.C., & Benavent, R.A. (2007). Consumption of anabolic steroids in sport, physical activity and as a drug of abuse: an analysis of the scientific literature and areas of research. British journal of sports medicine, 42, 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.036228.
Celotti, F. & Negri Cesi, P. (1992). Anabolic steroids: a review of their effects on the muscles, of the possibile mechanisms of actions and of their use in athletics. Journal Steroids Biochem Mol Biol, 43(5), 469-477.
Dobs, A.S. (1999). Is there a role for androgenic anabolic steroids in medical practice? JAMA, 281, 1326-1327.
Fragkaki, A.G., Angelis, Y.S., Koupparis, M., Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A., Kokotos, G., & Georgakopoulos, C. (2009). Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. applied modifications in the steroidal structure. Steroids, 74(2), 172-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.016
Kanayama, G., & Pope, Jr.H.G. (2017). History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 464, 4-13.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.02.039
Goldman, A. & Basaria, S. (2018). Adverse health effects of androgen use. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 464, 46-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.06.009
Goodman & Gilman’s (1990). The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th Edition, Pergamon Press, USA.
Hakansson, A., Mickelsson, K., Wallin, C., Berglund, M. (2012). Anabolic androgenic steroids in the general population: user characteristics and associations with substance use. European Addiction Research, 18(2), 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1159/000333037.
Huang, G. & Basaria, S. (2018). Do anabolic-androgenic steroids have performance-enhancing effects in female athletes? Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 464, 56-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2017.07.010
Illiano, M., Nigro, E., Sapio, L., Caiafa, I., Spina, A., Scudiero, O., Bianco, A., Esposito, S., Mazzeo, F., Pedone, P.V., & Daniele, A. (2017). Adiponectin down-regulates CREB and inhibits proliferation of A549 lung cancer cells. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 45, 114-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2017.05.009
Laure, P. (1997). Epidemiologic approach of doping in sport. A review. Journal Sports Med Phys Fitness, 37, 218-24.
Liow, R.Y. & Tavares, S. (1995). Bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon associated with anabolic steroids. British JournalSports Med, 29, 77-79.
Lippi, G. & Guidi, G. (1999). Doping and sports. Minerva Med, 90, 345-57.
Mazzeo, F., Santamaria, S., & Iavarone, A. (2015). “Boosting” in paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury: Doping without drugs. Functional Neurology, 30(2), 91-98. https://doi.org/10.11138/FNeur/2015.30.2.091
Mazzeo, F. (2016). Drug abuse in elite athletes: Doping in sports. Sport Science, 9(2), 34-41.
Mazzeo, F., Santamaria, S., Monda, V., Tafuri, D., Dalia, C., Varriale, L., De Blasio, S., Esposito, V., Messina, G., & Monda, M. (2016). Dietary supplements use in competitive and non-competitive boxer: An exploratory study. Biology and Medicine, 8(4), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4172/0974-8369.1000294
Mazzoni, I., Barroso, O., & Rabin, O. (2011). The list of prohibited substances and methods in sport: structure and review process by the world anti-doping agency. Journal Analytic Toxicology, 35(9), 608-12.
Modlinski, R. & Fields, K.B. (2006). The effect of anabolic steroids on the gastrointestinal system, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 5(2),104-109.
Montesano, P., Tafuri, D., Esposito, A., Gigante, F., Salzano, E., Viscido, G., & Mazzeo, F. (2013a). Conditional abilities in young special olympics athletes who practice unified football. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(4), 504-510. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2013.04079
Montesano, P., Tafuri, D., & Mazzeo, F. (2013b). Improvement of the Motor Performance difference in Athletes of Weelchair basketball. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 362-370. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2013.03058
Mottarm, D.R. & Gorge, A.J. (2000). Anabolic steroids. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 14, 55-69.
Pärssinen, M., Kujala, U., Vartiainen, E., Sarna, S., & Seppälä, T. (2000). Increased premature mortality of competitive power lifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. Int J Sports Med, 21(3), 225-7.
Pope, H.G.Jr. & Katz, D.L. (1994). Psychiatric and medical effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. A controlled study of 160 athletes. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 51(5), 375-82.
Raiola, G. (2011). A study on Italian primary school rules: Neurophysiological and didatics aspects in phisical education and sport. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 11(2), 43-48.
Saygin, O., Karacabey, K., Ozmerdivenli, R., Zorba, E., Ilhan, F., & Bulut, V. (2006). Effect of chronic exercise on immunoglobin, complement and leukocyte types in volleyball players and athletes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett, 27(1-2), 271-276.
Scarpino, V., Arrigo, A., Benzi, G., Garattini, S., La Vecchia, C., Rossi Bernardi, L., Silvestrini, G., & Tuccimei, G. (1990). Evaluation of prevalence of “doping” among Italian athletes. Lancet, 336, 1048-1050.
Stella, L., D’Ambra, C., Mazzeo, F., Capuano, A., Del Franco, F., Avolio, A., & Ambrosino, F. (2005). Naltrexone plus benzodiazepine aids abstinence in opioid-dependent patients. Life Sci, 77(21), 2717-2722.
Stella, L., de Novellis, V., Vitelli, M.R., Capuano, A., Mazzeo, F., Berrino, L., Rossi, F., & Filippelli, A. (2003). Interactive role of adenosine and dopamine in the opiate withdrawal syndrome. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 368(2), 113-118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-003-0773-9
Takahashi, M., Tatsugi, Y., & Kohno, T. (2004). Endocrinological and pathological effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid in male rats. Endocr Journal, 51(4), 425-434. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.51.425
Vasic, G. & Jakonic, D. (2007). Steroids most often used by sportsmen. Sport Mont, V(12-13-14), 102-109.