1University of Naples Parthenope, Department of Science and Technology, Naples, Italy
2University of Naples Parthenope, Department of Motor Sciences and Wellness, Naples, Italy
Gender Difference, Nutritional Supplements and Drug use in Sport to Enhancing Performance: an Italian Revision over the Last Decade
In last years, there has been a multitude of studies on doping, such as in recreational and in amateur sport. The extent of this phenomenon was clarified for special populations (like e.g. bodybuilders) and for special substances (mostly for anabolic steroids). Doping is present in sportsmen and women; the reasons why may be many and various. The aim of this study is to discover the gender disparity of drugs addiction as doping practice and breakdown by sport bodies and gender. The data show the anti-doping test took place on Italian professional athletes during the last years: from 2007 to 2017. Data showed are originated from the report commissioned by the Italian Ministry of Health. About checked doped athletes there are significant gender differences in doping attitude and/or in doping profiling. First of all, males seem to be more exposed to doping than females. The prohibited substances most frequently used by females athletes are diuretics and masking agents (10 athletes in 2014), cannabinoids (5 in 2007) and stimulants (5 in 2011) compared to males athletes who use mostly anabolic agents (27 in 2017), cannabinoids (20 in 2012) and diuretics and masking agents (17 in 2011 e 2014). The addiction of doping substances, depends on various factors related to gender, but what drives men and women is the sense of gratification and ego orientation. Nowadays a significant number of women joined official and Olympic competitions. Doping to enhance female sport performances took importance from the two last decades of the past century.
drugs, illicit substances, sport, gender, anti-doping controls, anti-doping programme
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