1Yogyakarta State University, Graduate School, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2Yogyakarta State University, Lecturer of Graduate School, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Indonesian Air Force Physical Tester Reliability in Assessing One-Minute Push-Up, Pull-Up, and Sit-Up Tests
The physical fitness test is a form of assessment to determine the level of physical fitness of a person, both general and specific (muscle). The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation among testers on pull-ups, sit-ups, and push-ups for one minute, and to determine the lowest reliability of the three tests. This study uses a sample of five people who are physical fitness testers of the Indonesian Air Force (TNI AU) who are experienced and active in conducting tests. The subjects were 25 males 18–22 years old. All testers assessed each subject by recording the results of the repetition of movements on all three tests. The data obtained were then converted based on the Indonesian Air Force physical fitness technical guidelines book. After analysis with Anova and ICC, it was found that the data produced by the five different testers had the ICC coefficient values that varied the least on the push-up test. Increased reliability of the testers can be accomplished through practice, tester selection, and paying attention to the ability of the tester. Also, the development of assessment tools and the development of alternative forms of testing are needed.
reliability, tester, push up test, pull up, sit up
Artero, E.G., España-Romero, V., & Castro-Piñero, J. (2011). Reliability of ﬁeld based ﬁtness tests in youth. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 159–69.
Bajpai, S., Bajpai, R.C., & Chaturvedi, H.K. (2015). Evaluation of inter-rater agreement and inter-rater reliability for observational data: An overview of concepts and methods. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology 41 (3), 20-27.
Barnett, L., Beurden, E., Morgan, P.J., Lincoln, D., Zask, A., & Beard, J. (2009). Interrater objectivity for field-based fundamental motor skill assessment. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80 (2), 363-368. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2009.10599571
Bartko, J.J. (1966). The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Psychological Reports, 19, 3-11.
Baumgartner, T.A., & Gaunt, S.J. (2005). Construct related validity for the Baumgartner modified pull-up test. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 9(1), 51-60. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327841mpee0901_4
Bompa, T.O., & Haff, G.G. (2009). Periodization: Theory and methodology of training. [5-th Edition]. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics.
Cogley, R.M., Archambault, T.A., Fibeger, J.F., Koverman, M.M., Youdas, J.W., & Hollman, J.H. (2005). Comparison of muscle activation using various hand positions during the push-up exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19 (3), 628–633.
D’Isanto, T., D’Elia, F., Raiola, G., & Altavilla, G. (2019). Assessment of sports performance: Theoretical aspects and practical indications. Sport Mont, 17 (1), 79-82. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.190214
Fielitz, L., Coelho, J., Horne, T., & Brechue, W. (2016). Inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of assessing the 2-minute push-up test. Journal of Military Medicine, 181 (2), 167-175.
Fox, E.L. (1988). Physiological basis of physical education on athletics. Philadelpia: Saunders College Pub.
Harsono. (2015). Sports coaching, theory, and methodology. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
Hartono, S., Widodo, A., Wismanadi, H., & Hikmatyar, G. (2019). The effects of roller massage, massage, and ice bath on lactate removal and delayed onset muscle soreness. Sport Mont, 17 (2), 111–114. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.190620
Koo, T.K., & Li, M.Y. (2015). A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 5 (3), 190-197.
Kozlowski, S.W., & Hattrup, K. (1992). A disagreement about the within-group agreement: Disentangling issues of consistency versus consensus. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77 (2), 161–167. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.2.161
Mathews, D.K. (2013). Comparison of testers and subjects in administering physical fitness index tests. Physical Education and Recreation, 24 (4), 442-445. https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1953.10761987
McCunn, R., der Fünten, K.A, Govus, A., Julian, R., Schimpchen, J., & Meyer, T. (2017). The intra-and inter-rater reliability of the soccer injury movement screen (SIMS). The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 12 (1), 176-180.
McManis, B.G., Baumgartner, T.A., & Wuest, D.A. (2000). Objectivity and reliability of the 90° push-up test. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 4 (1), 57–67.
Miller, D.K. (2002). Measurement by the physical educator 4th edition. San Fransisco: McGraww Hill.
Mischiati, C.R., Comerford, M., Gosford, E., Swart, J., Ewings, S., Botha, N., Stokes, M., & Mottram, S.L. (2015). Intra and inter-rater reliability of screening for movement impairments: Movement control tests from the foundation matrix. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 14, 427-440.
Piscopo, J., & Baley, J.A. (1981). Kinesiology the science of movement. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Putranta, H., & Supahar, S. (2019). Development of physics-tier tests (PysTT) to measure students’ conceptual understanding and creative thinking skills: A qualitative synthesis. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 7 (3), 747-775. https://doi.org/10.17478/jegys.587203
Rae, G. (1984). On measuring agreement among several judges on the presence or absence of a trait. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 4, 247-253.
Rogers, D.K., McKeown, I., Parfitt, G., Burgess, D., & Eston, R.G. (2017). Reliability of the athletic ability assessment in Australian rules football. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 3(1), 180-187. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002175.
Indonesian Air Force. (2011). Regulation of the Air Force Chief of Staff Mighty. The Air Force’s Technical Guidance on Physical Development. Jakarta: Mabesau.
Indonesian Air Force. (2013). Decree of the Chief of Staff of the Air Force. The Air Force’s Technical Guidebook on Physical Fitness Tests. Jakarta: Mabesau.
Widiyanto, & Hartono, S. (2018). The effects of hyperbaric oxygen and active recovery on lactate removal and fatigue index. Sport Mont, 16 (3), 15–18. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.181003