1Faculty of Physical Education and Sport , University of Pristina “Hasan Pristina”, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
Relative Age Effects in The Selection of Representative Athletes of Kosovo National Team in Handball, Football, Basketball, Volleyball - Post Puberty Age
Taking into account the role that the selection of athletes has in the success of clubs as well as in the sports life of young people, this research aims to highlight the impact of the Relative Age Effects (RAE) in the selection of athletes for representative teams of Kosovo in collective sports and the difference between the respective groups. The study was designed as an observational cross-sectional study. The total sample of persons in this research was n=237 (118 male and 119 female) athletes of the Kosovo National Team of team sports. The athletes were divided into 4 main groups: Q1 (January-March), Q2 (April-June), Q3 (July-September) and Q4 (October-December) with a special emphasis on the Q1 and Q4 group (for all sports the birth dates of the age post-puberty were collected). The analysis of the data clearly indicates that young athletes born in Q1 and Q2 were significantly more selected for representative teams compared to those in the other two groups. The results demonstrate a significant relative age effect on athlete selection based on gender for the Kosovo National Team. Specifically, athletes from Q1 and Q2 were favored. Based on these findings, it is strongly recommended that the respective federations, sports trainers, and relevant sports authorities take proactive measures to prevent the “discrimination” experienced by young athletes.
team sports, dynamic of relative age, selection, quartile, success, potential
Alibali, M. W., & Nathan, M. J. (2012). Embodiment in mathematics teaching and learning: Evidence from learners' and teachers' gestures. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21(2), 247-286.
Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617–645.
Bartholomew, J. B., & Jowers, E. M. (2011). Physically active academic lessons in elementary children. Preventive Medicine, 52, S51–S54.
Blaesi, S., & Wilson, M. (2010). The mirror reflects both ways: Action influences the perception of others. Brain and Cognition, 72(2), 306-309.
Boat, R., Cooper, S. B., Carlevaro, F., Magno, F., Bardaglio, G., Musella, G., & Magistro, D. (2022). 16 Weeks of Physically Active Mathematics and English Language Lessons Improves Cognitive Function and Gross Motor Skills in Children Aged 8–9 Years. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(24), 16751.
Bransford, J. (2000). Brain, mind, experience, and school: How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press location.
Bresler, L. (2013). Knowing bodies, moving minds: Towards embodied teaching and learning (Vol. 3). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Bruer, J. T. (2016). Where is educational neuroscience? Educational Neuroscience, 1(0), 1–12.
Burte, H., Gardony, A. L., Hutton, A., & Taylor, H. A. (2017). Think3d!: Improving mathematics learning through embodied spatial training. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2(1), 13.
Campbell, E., & Jones, G. (2002). Cognitive appraisal of sources of stress experienced by elite male wheelchair basketball players. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19(1), 100-108.
Caruana, F., & Borghi A., M. (2016). Il cervello in azione: introduzione alle nuove scienze della mente (The brain in action: introduction to the new sciences of the mind). Il Mulino.
Ceciliani, A. (2018). Dall’Embodied Cognition all’Embodied Education nelle scienze dell’attività motoria e sportiva (From Embodied Cognition to Embodied Education in motor and sport activity sciences). Encyclopaideia, 22(51), 11-24.
Chandler, P., & Tricot, A. (2015). Mind your body: The essential role of body movements in children’s learning. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 365-370.
Crollen, V., & Noël, M.-P. (2015). The role of fingers in the development of counting and arithmetic skills. Acta Psychologica, 156, 37–44.
Cook, S. W., Friedman, H. S., Duggan, K. A., Cui, J., & Popescu, V. (2017). Hand gesture and mathematics learning: lessons from an Avatar. Cognitive Science, 41(2), 518-535.
D'Anna, C., Forte, P., Vivona, A., Pugliese, E., & Gomez Paloma, F. (2023). Physical Fitness and Potential Intelligence in Primary School: A Correlational Study. Research Journal of Sports and Health Psychology, 5, 1-6.
Dini, J. P. A. U. (2022). Concentration of Children's Learning in Motor-Sensory Play Management Development Framework. Jurnal Obsesi: Jurnal Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, 6(5), 3807-3816.
Donnelly, J. E., & Lambourne, K. (2011). Classroom-based physical activity, cognition, and academic achievement. Preventive Medicine, 52, S36–S42.
Donnelly, J. E., Hillman, C. H., Castelli, D., Etnier, J. L., Lee, S., Tomporowski, P., Lambourne, K., & Szabo-Reed, A. N. (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(6), 1197.
Duijzer, C. A., Shayan, S., Bakker, A., Van der Schaaf, M. F., & Abrahamson, D. (2017). Touchscreen tablets: Coordinating action and perception for mathematical cognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 144.
Erickson, K. I., Hillman, C. H., & Kramer, A. F. (2015). Physical activity, brain, and cognition. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 4, 27–32.
Farina, M. (2021). Embodied cognition: dimensions, domains, and applications. Adaptive Behavior, 29(1), 73-88.
Fedewa, A. L., & Ahn, S. (2011). The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children’s achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(3), 521–535.
Fischer, K. W., Daniel, D. B., Immordino‐Yang, M. H., Stern, E., Battro, A., & Koizumi, H. (2007). Why mind, brain, and education? Why now?. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1(1), 1-2.
Fischer, K. W., Goswami, U., Geake, J., & Task Force on the Future of Educational Neuroscience. (2010). The future of educational neuroscience. Mind, Brain, and Education, 4(2), 68-80.
Francesconi, D., & Tarozzi, M. (2012). Embodied education: A convergence of phenomenological pedagogy and embodiment. Studia Phaenomenologica, 12, 263-288.
Frauenfelder, E., Rivoltella, P.C., Rossi, P.G., & Sibilio, M. (2013). Bio-education, simplexity, neuroscience, and enactivism. A new paradigm? Education Sciences & Society, 4(1), 11-25.
Gallagher, S., & Lindgren, R. (2015). Enactive metaphors: Learning through full-body engagement. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 391-404.
Gallese, V. (2005). Embodied simulation: From neurons to phenomenal experience. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 4, 23-48.
Gallese, V., & Goldman, A. (1998). Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2(12), 493-501.
Gola, G., Compagno, G., & Albanese, M. (2023). NeuroTeaching. To bring educational neuroscience into the classroom1 Neurodidattica. Q-Times Webmagazine, 1(1), 60-72.
Gomez Paloma, F. (2009). Corporeità, didattica e apprendimento. Le nuove Neuroscienze dell’Educazione (Corporality, didactics and learning. The new Neurosciences of Education). Salerno: Edisud.
Gomez Paloma, F., Ascione, A., Tafuri, D. (2016). Embodied Cognition: il ruolo del corpo nella didattica (Embodied Cognition: the role of the body in teaching). Formazione & Insegnamento, 14(1 Suppl.), 75-88.
Hall, R., & Nemirovsky, R. (2012). Introduction to the special issue: Modalities of body engagement in mathematical activity and learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 21(2), 207-215.
Have, M., Nielsen, J. H., Ernst, M. T., Gejl, A. K., Fredens, K., Grøntved, A., & Kristensen, P. L. (2018). Classroom-based physical activity improves children’s math achievement– A randomized controlled trial. PloS One, 13(12), e0208787.
Hraste, M., De Giorgio, A., Jelaska, P. M., Padulo, J., & Granić, I. (2018). When mathematics meets physical activity in the school-aged child: The effect of an integrated motor and cognitive approach to learning geometry. PLoS One, 13(8), e0196024.
Iannello, P., & Antonietti, A. (2007). Relationships between decision styles and thinking styles. In Workshop on Cognition and Emotion in Economic Decision Making (pp. 49-50).
Ionescu, T., & Vasc, D. (2014). Embodied cognition: challenges for psychology and education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 128, 275-280.
Kosmas, P., & Zaphiris, P. (2018). Embodied cognition and its implications in education: An overview of recent literature. International Journal of Educational and Pedagogical Sciences, 12(7), 930-936.
Lakoff, G., & Nunez, R. (2005). Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being. Notices of the AMS, 48(10), 1182-1188.
Latino, F., Fischetti, F., & Colella, D. (2020). L'influenza dell'attività fisica sulle funzioni cognitive e sulle prestazioni scolastiche tra i ragazzi in età scolare: una revisione della letteratura. Formazione & Insegnamento (The influence of physical activity on cognitive function and academic performance among school-aged children: a literature review. Training & Teaching). Rivista Internazionale di Scienze dell'educazione e Della Formazione, 18(3), 124-134.
LeDoux, J., (2002). Il sé sinaptico (The synaptic self). Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.
Leitan, N. D., & Chaffey, L. (2014). Embodied cognition and its applications: A brief review. Sensoria: A Journal of Mind, Brain & Culture, 10(1), 3-10.
Leung, A. K. Y., Qiu, L., Ong, L., & Tam, K. P. (2011). Embodied cultural cognition: Situating the study of embodied cognition in socio‐cultural contexts. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(9), 591-608.
Magistro, D., Cooper, S. B., Carlevaro, F., Marchetti, I., Magno, F., Bardaglio, G., & Musella, G. (2022). Two years of physically active mathematics lessons enhance cognitive function and gross motor skills in primary school children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 63, 102254.
Merleau Ponty, M. (2002). Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge.
Montagnoli, L., & Baresi, F. (2018). Istituzioni di matematica: teorie e attività per la scuola dell'infanzia e per la scuola primaria (Mathematical institutions: theories and activities for kindergarten and primary school). Istituzioni di Matematica, 1-442.
Odendahl, J. (2021). Embodied Cognition, affects and language comprehension. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 20, 483–499. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11097-020-09684-0.
Osgood‐Campbell, E. (2015). Investigating the educational implications of embodied cognition: A model interdisciplinary inquiry in mind, brain, and education curricula. Mind, Brain, and Education, 9(1), 3-9.
Palmiero, M. & Borsellino, M. C. (2018). Embodied cognition: comprendere la mente incarnata. Embodied Cognition, 1-216.
Peppler, K. (2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Out-of-School Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Pesce, C., Croce, R., Ben-Soussan, T. D., Vazou, S., McCullick, B., Tomporowski, P. D., & Horvat, M. (2019). Variability of practice as an interface between motor and cognitive development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(2), 133-152.
Radford, L. (2011). Sullo sviluppo del pensiero matematico nei giovani studenti: la graduale armonizzazione di percezione, gesti e simboli (On the development of mathematical thinking in young students: the gradual harmonization of perception, gestures and symbols). Un Quarto di Secolo al Servizio della Didattica della Matematica, 33-39.
Rio, L., Damiani, P., & Paloma F. G. (2015). Embodied processes between maths and gross-motor skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 3805-3809.
Rivoltella, P.C. (2012). Neurodidattica. Insegnare al cervello che apprende (Neurodidactics. Teaching the learning brain). Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
Rizzolatti, G., & Sinigaglia, C. (2006). So quel che fai: il cervello che agisce ei neuroni specchio (I know what you do: the acting brain and mirror neurons). Milano: R. Cortina.
Robertson, S. S., & Johnson, S. L. (2009). Embodied infant attention. Developmental Science, 12(2), 297-304.
Samuelson, L. K. (2011). Abstract thinking in space and time: Using the environment to learn words. Cognition, Brain, Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15(4), 571.
Sato, M., & Lalain, M. (2008). On the relationship between handedness and hand-digit mapping in finger counting. Cortex 44, 393–39.
Sgambelluri, R., & Vinci, V. (2020). Corporeità e inclusione. Una ricerca con i futuri insegnanti specializzati (Body and inclusion. Research with prospective specialist teachers). Formazione & insegnamento, 18(1 Tomo I), 362-375.
Shapiro, L., & Stolz, S. A. (2019). Embodied cognition and its significance for education. Theory and Research in Education, 17(1), 19–39.
Sibilio, M. (2017). Corpo e cognizione nella didattica. In P.G. Rossi, P.C. Rivoltella (Eds.). L’agire didattico. Manuale per l’insegnante (pp. 51-69). Brescia: La Scuola.
Sibilio, M., & Galdieri, M. (2022). Il potenziale corporeo nell’azione didattica (The bodily potential in didactic action). In Educazione degli Adulti: politiche, percorsi, prospettive Studi in onore di Paolo Federighi (pp. 191-201). Firenze University Press.
Soto-Johnson, H. (2018). Learning mathematics through embodied activities.
Sullivan, J. V. (2018). Learning and embodied cognition: A review and proposal. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 17(2), 128-143.
Thelen, E., & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge: MIT Press
Thorburn, M., & Stolz, S. (2017). Embodied learning and school-based physical culture: Implications for professionalism and practice in physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 22(6), 721-731.
Tomporowski, P. D., Davis, C. L., Miller, P. H., & Naglieri, J. A. (2008). Exercise and children’s intelligence, cognition, and academic achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 111–131.
Tosi, I. (2022). Corporeita'e didattica: embodied cognition come opportunita'per il docente di scuola primaria (Corporeity and didactics: embodied cognition as an opportunity for the primary school teacher). Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore.
Tschentscher, N., Hauk, O., Fischer, M. H., & Pulvermüller, F. (2012). You can count on the motor cortex: finger-counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers. Neuroimage 59, 3139–3148.
Van den Berg, V., Singh, A. S., Komen, A., Hazelebach, C., van Hilvoorde, I., & Chinapaw, M. J. (2019). Integrating juggling with math lessons: A randomized controlled trial assessing effects of physically active learning on maths performance and enjoyment in primary school children. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(14), 2452.
Willems, R. M., & Francken, J. C. (2012). Embodied cognition: taking the next step. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 582.