1University of Nis, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Nis, Serbia
2University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Split, Croatia
3University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Niksic, Montenegro
4University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Speed and Agility Training in Female Soccer Players - A Systematic Review
Female soccer players performs between 1350-1650 activity changes, along with jumping, accelerating and decelerating. The ability to repeat these actions identically in competition are essential for success in female soccer. Hence, the study aim was to summarize relevant literature on the effects of speed and agility training in female soccer players. Literature identification were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and in multiple databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, EBSCOhost and Science Direct). Based on the pre-defined inclusion criteria (year of publication (2003-2022), full-text study published in English, the experimental study that had included healthy and injury-free female soccer players as participant sample) database search have identified 23502 potential studies. In the end, a total of seven full-text studies were included, with a total of 165 female participants. There were a variety of experimental programs, such as resisted, assisted and traditional sprint training, high-speed treadmill, speed and agility trainings, and repeated agility and strength group, along with their comparison with strength training group. Likewise, different types of duration, intensity and frequency were observed and resulted overall speed and agility improvements in female soccer players. Authors can conclude that only with well prepared and organized program, especially in pre-season, female soccer players should be able to improve important and specific factors, in order to achieve desired aim and result in terms of speed and agility.
football, sprint, quickness, power performance
Andrašić, S., Gušić, M., Stanković, M., Mačak, D., Bradić, A., Sporiš, G., & Trajković, N. (2021). Speed, change of direction speed and reactive agility in adolescent soccer players: Age related differences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(11), 5883.
Ates, B. (2018). Age-Related Effects of Speed and Power on Agility Performance of Young Soccer Players. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(6), 93-99.
Azmi, K., & Kusnanik, N. W. (2018). Effect of exercise program speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) in improving speed, agility, and acceleration. In Journal of Physics: conference series (Vol. 947, No. 1, p. 012043). IOP Publishing.
Datson, N., Hulton, A., Andersson, H., Lewis, T., Weston, M., Drust, B., & Gregson, W. (2014). Applied physiology of female soccer: an update. Sports Medicine, 44, 1225-1240.
De Morton, N. A. (2009). The PEDro scale is a valid measure of the methodological quality of clinical trials: a demographic study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 55(2), 129-133.
Dupont, G., Akakpo, K., & Berthoin, S. (2004). The effect of in-season, high-intensity interval training in soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(3), 584-589.
Jalilvand, F. A. R. Z. A. D., & RSCC, U. (2015). Development of biomotor abilities for soccer. National Strength & Conditioning Association Journal, 2(1), 12.
Johnson, A. W., Eastman, C. S., Feland, J. B., Mitchell, U. H., Mortensen, B. B., & Eggett, D. (2013). Effect of high-speed treadmill training with a body weight support system in a sport acceleration program with female soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(6), 1496-1502.
Julian, R., Hecksteden, A., Fullagar, H. H., & Meyer, T. (2017). The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players. PloS One, 12(3), e0173951.
Keay N, Craghill E, Francis G. (2021). Female football specific energy availability questionnaire and menstrual cycle hormone monitoring. medRxiv. Published Online.
Kyröläinen, H., Avela, J., & Komi, P. V. (2005). Changes in muscle activity with increasing running speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(10), 1101-1109.
Kraemer, W. J., French, D. N., Paxton, N. J., Häkkinen, K., Volek, J. S., Sebastianelli, W. J., ... & Knuttgen, H. G. (2004). Changes in exercise performance and hormonal concentrations over a big ten soccer season in starters and nonstarters. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(1), 121-128.
Loturco, I., Jeffreys, I., Abad, C. C. C., Kobal, R., Zanetti, V., Pereira, L. A., & Nimphius, S. (2020). Change-of-direction, speed and jump performance in soccer players: a comparison across different age-categories. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(11-12), 1279-1285.
Maher, C. G., Sherrington, C., Herbert, R. D., Moseley, A. M., & Elkins, M. (2003). Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials. Physical Therapy, 83(8), 713-721.
Malina, R. M., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Human kinetics.
Mathisen, G., & Danielsen, K. H. (2014). Effects of speed exercises on acceleration and agility performance in 13-year-old female soccer players. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 14(4), 471 – 474.
Mathisen, G. E., & Pettersen, S. A. (2015). The effect of speed training on sprint and agility performance in 15-year-old female soccer players. Lase Journal of Sport Science, (6), 63-72.
Mero, A., Komi, P. V., & Gregor, R. J. (1992). Biomechanics of sprint running: A review. Sports Medicine, 13, 376-392.
Meylan, C., & Malatesta, D. (2009). Effects of in-season plyometric training within soccer practice on explosive actions of young players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(9), 2605-2613.
Mkumbuzi, N. S., Dlamini, S. B., Chibhabha, F., Govere, F. M., & Manda-Taylor, L. (2022). The menstrual cycle and football: The experiences of African women football players. Science and Medicine in Football, 6(5), 626-632.
Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Andersson, H., Kirkendal, D., & Bangsbo, J. (2008). Match activities of elite women soccer players at different performance levels. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22(2), 341-349.
Morgans, R., Orme, P., Anderson, L., & Drust, B. (2014). Principles and practices of training for soccer. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3(4), 251-257.
Munro, A. G., & Herrington, L. C. (2011). Between-session reliability of four hop tests and the agility T-test. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(5), 1470-1477.
Murtagh, C. F., Brownlee, T. E., Rienzi, E., Roquero, S., Moreno, S., Huertas, G., ... & Erskine, R. M. (2020). The genetic profile of elite youth soccer players and its association with power and speed depends on maturity status. PloS One, 15(6), e0234458.
Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., ... & Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. International Journal of Surgery, 88, 105906.
Paradis, S. A. (2003). The effects of a 6-week speed and agility program on the development of explosive power, strength, speed, and agility in youth soccer players (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh). Pittsburgh, GB: University of Pittsburgh.
Peeters, R., & Elling, A. (2015). The coming of age of women’s football in the Dutch sports media, 1995–2013. Soccer & Society, 16(5-6), 620-638.
Pettersen, S. A., & Mathisen, G. E. (2012). Effect of short burst activities on sprint and agility performance in 11-to 12-year-old boys. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(4), 1033-1038.
Prvulović, N., Martinović, D., Kostić, L., & Katanić, B. (2021). Differences in Explosive Strength in Athletics and Various Sports: A Systematic Review. In Pantelić, S.(Ed.): XXIII International Scientific Conference “FIS Communications 2019” in Physical Education, Sports and Recreation (pp. 62-69).
Rampinini, E., Bishop, D., Marcora, S. M., Bravo, D. F., Sassi, R., & Impellizzeri, F. M. (2006). Validity of simple field tests as indicators of match-related physical performance in top-level professional soccer players. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 228-235.
Rethlefsen, M. L., Kirtley, S., Waffenschmidt, S., Ayala, A. P., Moher, D., Page, M. J., & Koffel, J. B. (2021). PRISMA-S: an extension to the PRISMA statement for reporting literature searches in systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 10(1), 1-19.
Stanković, M., Đorđević, D., Aleksić, A., Lazić, A., Lilić, A., Čaprić, I., & Trajković, N. (2022). The relationship between jump performance, speed and cod speed in elite female soccer players. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 047-059.
Szabo, D. A., Neagu, N., & Sopa, I. S. (2020). Research regarding the development and evaluation of agility (balance, coordination and speed) in children aged 9-10 years. Health, Sports & Rehabilitation Medicine, 21(2).
Shalfawi, S. A., Young, M., Tønnessen, E., Haugen, T. A., & Enoksen, E. (2013a). The effect of repeated agility training vs. repeated sprint training on elite female soccer players’physical performance. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 19(3), 29-42.
Shalfawi, S. A., Haugen, T., Jakobsen, T. A., Enoksen, E., & Tønnessen, E. (2013b). The effect of combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training vs. strength training on female elite soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 27(11), 2966-2972.
Tønnessen, E., Shalfawi, S. A., Haugen, T., & Enoksen, E. (2011). The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(9), 2364-2370.
Upton, D. E. (2011). The effect of assisted and resisted sprint training on acceleration and velocity in Division IA female soccer athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(10), 2645-2652.
Vescovi, J. D., Rumpf, R., & Brown, T. D. (2011). Sprint ability increases in young women up through 15-17 years of age. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21, 670-678.
Yap, C. W., & Brown, L. E. (2000). Development of Speed, Agility, and Quickness for the Female Soccer Athlete. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 22(1), 9.