1Universe College, Department of Physical Culture, Sport and Recreation, Prishtina, Kosovo
2AAB College, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Prishtina, Kosovo
3University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sports and Physical Education, Niksic, Montenegro
4University of Prishtina, Faculty of Medicine, Prishtina, Kosovo
The Effect of Static Stretching in Agility and Isokinetic Force at Football Players
The repercussion is an essential of the football training, also called “Cool Down”. Static stretching and slow running are typical activities of this section, but in the last few years static stretching has had a great influence on performance functionality and is one of the most debated topics in sports sciences and medicine. The aspiration of this research is to show the impact of recovery associated with static stretching and the agility performance of young football players. This research was conducted between August and November with a sample of 20 players age 12.1±0.3 years (range 11-13 years) separated into two groups- control and experimental. First measurements that have been initiated are body weight 40.6±6.5 kg, height 152.6±6.9 cm and agility performance (Ajax test 5x10 m and zig-zag test with and without ball). Agility was measured with electronic photocells’, with a measurement of .01 sec. Experimental testing proposed that both groups have completed the regular training program, while the experimental group (despite the control group) during the recuperation (cool down) except running, they conveyed out the experimental treatment / static stretching exercises. Each exercise lasts at least 20 seconds. After completing the experimental program members in both groups underwent final measurements. The results that were reached by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) at initial and final measurements, have shown insignificant statistical values between the control and experimental group in the agility performance.
static stretching, recovery, agility, soccer players
Albrecht, K., Meier, S., & Zahner, L. (2001). Stretching. Das Expertenhandbuch. Heidelberg.
Andersen, J.C., (2005). Stretching before and after exercise: Effect on muscle soreness und injury risk. Journal of Athletes Training, 40, 218-220.
Anderson, B. (2006). Stretching. Zagreb: Gopal
Amiri-Khorasani, M., Sahebozamani, M., Tabrizi, K.G., & Yusof, A.B. (2010). Acute effect of different stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(10), 2698–2704.
Amiri-Khorasani, M., & Sotoodeh, V. (2013). The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on fitness performances in soccer players. Journal of Sports and Medicin Physis Fitness, 53(5), 559-565.
Behm, D.G., Chaouachi, A., Lau, P.W.C., & Wong, D.P. (2011). Short durations of statik stretching when combined with dynamic stretching do not impair repeated sprints and agility. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 10(2), 408-416.
Behm, D.G., & Kibele, A. (2007). Effects of differing intensities of static stretching on jump performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 101(5), 587-594.
Bjelica, D., Popović, S., & Petković, J. (2013). Comparison of Instep Kicking Between Preferred and Non-Preferred Leg in Young Football Players. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2(1), 5-10.
Brandey, J., Ajit, D.K., Richard, S.F., & Jennifer, L.C. (2012). Acute effects of statik and proprioceptive neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Agility performance in Elite Youth Soccer Players. International Journal Exercises Sciences, 5(2), 97-105.
Carling, C., Espie, V., Gall, F., Blomfieldc, J., & Julie, H. (2010).Work-rate of substitutes in elite soccer: A preliminary study. Journal sciences of Medicine Sport 13(2), 253-255.
Chaouachi, A., Chamari, K., Wong, P., Castagna, C., Chaouachi, M., Moussa-Chamari, I., & Behm, D. (2008). Stretch and Sprint Training Reduces Stretch-Induced Sprint Performance Deficits In 13-to 15-Year-Old Youth. Eur J Appl Physiol., 104(3), 515-522.
Dawson, B., Gow, S., Modra, S., Bishop, D., & Stewart, G. (2005). Effects of immediate post-game recovery procedures on muscle soreness, power and flexibility levels over the next 48 hours. J Sci Med Sport, 8, 210- 221.
Famisis, K. (2015). Acute effect of static and dynamic stretching exercise on sprint and flexibility of amateur soccer players. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Greece.
Faigenbaum, A. D., Bellucci, M., Bernieri, A., Bakker, B., & Hoorens, K. (2005). Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on fitness performance in children. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(2), 376–381.
Frederick, A.G., & Szymanski, D.J. (2001). Dynamic flexibility. Strength Cond. J., 23, 21-30.
Gardašević, J., & Bjelica, D. (2013). Efekti programiranog trenažnog rada u trajanju od šest nedjelja na transformaciju fleksibilnosti kod fudbalera kadetskog uzrasta. Sport Mont, XI(37-38-39), 212-217.
Gardasevic, J., Bjelica, D., & Vasiljevic, I. (2016). Six-Week Preparation Period and its Effects on Transformation Movement Speed with Football Players under 16. Sport Mont, 14(1), 13-16
Gelen, E. (2010). Acute effects of different warm-up methods on sprint, slalom dribbling, and penalty kick performance in soccer players. J Strenth Cond Res, 24(4), 950-956.
Gonçalves, D.L., Pavao, T.S., & Dohnert, M.B., (2013). Acute and chronic effects of a static and dynamic stretching program in the performance of young soccer athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 19(4), 241-246.
Haddad, M., Dridi, A., Chtara, M., Chaouachi, A., Wong, P., Behm, D, & Chamari K. (2014). Static stretching can impair explosive performance for at least 24 hours. The journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(1), 140-146.
Herbert, R.D., & Gabriel, M. (2002). Effects of stretching before and after exercising on muscle soreness and risk of injury: Systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 325(7362), 468.
Idrizovic, K. (2014). Physical and anthropometric profiles of elite female soccer players. Medicina dello sport; 67(2), 273-287.
Joksimović, A., Jezdimirović, M., Smajić, M., Stanković, D., Popović, S., & Tomić, B. (2015). Biochemical Profile of Serbian Youth National Soccer Teams. International Journal of Morphology, 33(2), 483-490.
Kay, D.A., & Blazevich, A.J. (2011). Effect of Acute Statik Stretch on Maximal Muscle Performance: A Systematic Review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(1), 154-64.
Keiner, M., Sander, A., Wirth, K., & Harmann, H. (2015). Differences in the performance tests of the fast and slow stretch and shortening cycle among professional, amateur and elite youth soccer players. Journal of human sport & exercise, 10(2), 563-570.
Kelly, Ch., Fawzi, M., & Rajiv, V. (2012). Stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains: Attitudes, beliefs and current practices among football coaches in Mauritius. Open Journal of preventive Medicine, 2, 141-148.
King, M., & Duffield, R. (2009). The effects of recovery interventions on consecutive days of intermittent sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res, 26, 1795-1802.
Kinugasa, T., & Kilding, A.E. (2009). A comparison of post-match recovery strategies in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 23, 1402-1407.
La Torre, A., Castagna, C., Gervasoni, E., Cè, E., Rampichini, S., Ferrarin, M., & Merati, G. (2010). Acute effects of static stretching on squat jump performance at different knee starting angles. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24(3), 687-94.
La Roche, D.P., Lussier, M., & Roy, S.J. (2008). Chronic stretching and voluntary muscle force. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(2), 589-96.
Little, T., & Williams, A.G. (2006). Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 203-207.
Lycholat, T. (1999). The complete book of stretching. Wiltshire: The Crowood Press.
Magnusson, S.P., Aagard, P., Simonsen, E., & Bojsen-Moller, F. (1998). A biomechanical evaluation of cyclic and static stretch in human skeletal muscle. International Journal of Sports Medicines, 19(5), 310 -316.
Marek, S.M., Cramer, J.T., Fincher, A.L., Massey, L.L., Dangelmaier, S.M., Purkayastha, S., Fitz, K.A., & Culbertson, J.Y. (2005). Acute Effects of Static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Muscle Strength and Power Output. J Athl Train., 40(2), 94-103.
Mayorga-Vega, D., Merino-Marban, R., Garrido, F.J., & Viciana J. (2014). Comparison between warm-up and cool-down stretching programs on hamstring extensibility gains in primary schoolchildren. Physical Activity Review, 2, 16-24.
McHugh, M.P. (2006). Strength loss following static stretching: The role of muscle length. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(5), 373-374.
Montgomery, P., Pyne, D., Hopkins, W., Dorman, J., Cook, K., Minahan, C. (2008). The effect of recovery strategies on physical performance and cumulative fatigue in competitive basketball. Journal Sports Sciences, 26, 1135- 1145.
Milanovic, Z., Sporiš, G., Trajkovic, N., James, N., & Samija, K. (2013). Effect of a 12 Week SAQ Training Programme on Agility with and without the Ball among Young Soccer Players. Journal of Sports Sciences and Medicine, 12, 97-103
Mirkov, D., Nedeljkovic, A., Kukolj, M., Ugarkovic, D., & Jaric, S. (2008). Evaluation of the reliability of soccer-specific field tests. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1046-1050.
Nelson, A., Driscoll, N., Landin, D., Young, M., & Schexnayder, I (2004). Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(5), 449-454.
Popović, S., Bjelica, D., Jakšić, D. & Hadžić, R. (2014). Comparative Study of Anthropometric Measurement and Body Composition between Elite Soccer and Volleyball Players. International Journal of Morphology, 32(1), 267-274.
Popović, S., Akpinar, S., Jakšić, D., Matić, R. & Bjelica, D. (2013). Comparative Study of Anthropometric Measurement and Body Composition between Elite Soccer and Basketball Players. International Journal of Morphology, 31(2), 461-467.
Power, K., Behm, D., Cahill, F., Carroll, M., & Young, W. (2004). An acute bout of static stretching: effect on force and jumping performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(8), 1389-1396.
Reilly, T., & Williams, A.M. (2003). Science and soccer (Second edition). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Rey, E., Carlos, L.P., Luis, C., & Joaquin. L.B., (2012). The Effect of Immediate Post-Training Active and Passive Recovery Interventions on Anaerobic Performance and Lower Limb Flexibility in Professional Soccer Players. Journal of Human Kinetics, 31, 121-129.
Samson, M., Button, D., Chaouachi, A., & Behm, D. (2012). Effects of dynamic and statik stretching within general and activity specific warm-up protocols. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11, 279–285.
Sayers, A.L., Farley, R.S., Fuller, D.K., Jubenville, C.B., & Caputo, J.L. (2008). The effect of statik stretching on phases of sprint performance in elite soccer players. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 22(5), 1416-142.
Sermaxhaj, S. & Telai, B. (2014). Influence of some anthropometric variables and the specific motoric on the success of the Football players of First Junior League of Kosovo, Research in Physical Education, Sport and Health, (111-115), Ohrid.
Sporiš, G. (2007). Efekti situacijskog polistrukturalnog kompleksnog treninga na morfološka, motorička, situacijsko-motorička i funkcionalna obilježja. Doktorska disertacija, Kineziološki fakultet, Zagreb.
Sporiš, G., Jovanović, M., & Kubla, B. (2010). Teorija treninga. UEFA A, Zagreb.
Stolen, T., Chamari, K., Castanga, C., & Wilsloff, U. (2005). Physiology of soccer. J Sports Med., 35(6), 501-536.
Tesitore, A., Meeusen, R., Cortis, C., & Caprinica, L. (2007). Effects of different recovery interventions on anaerobic performances following preseason soccer training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 745–750.
Verheijen, R. (1997). Fussballkondition, Amsterdam.
Vučetić, V., Šoš, K. & Rocak, A. (2003). Gipkost nogometaša. U D. Milanovič & I. Jukić (ur.), Kondicijska priprema sporttaša (str. 404-4012). Zagreb.
Walker, B. (2006). The anatomy of stretching. Chichester: Lotus.
Witvrouw, E., Danneels, L., Asselman, P., D’Have, T., & Cambier, D. (2003). Muscle flexibility as a risk factor for developing muscle injuries in male professional soccer players a prospective study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), 41–46.
Zakas, A. (2005). The effect of stretching duration on the lower-extremity flexibility of adolescent soccer players. The Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 9(3), 220-227.