Enter your details:
Thank you for subscribing.
Subscribe to our newsletter!

Ulul Azmy1, Nabila Rahmaniah2, Ananli Raiza Renzytha2, Dominikus Raditya Atmaka3, Rachmahnia Pratiwi3, Mochammad Rizal4, Sri Adiningsih3, Lilik Herawati5

1Universitas Airlangga, Master of Sport Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Indonesia
2Universitas Airlangga, Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine, Indonesia
3Universitas Airlangga, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Indonesia
4Cornell University, Nutrition Science, International Nutrition, United States
5Universitas Airlangga, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Indonesia

Comparison of Body Compositions among Endurance, Strength, and Team Sports Athletes

Sport Mont 2023, 21(3), 45-50 | DOI: 10.26773/smj.231007


Regular monitoring and evaluation of body composition determine an athlete’s output, such as their probability of winning competitions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in athletes’ body composition among several sports categories. The data collected were on 251 athletes aged 20 to 30 years during the pre-competition period. The subjects were divided into three groups: endurance, power, and team sports. SECA 515mBCA was used to analyze the athletes’ body composition, which included their body fat percentage (BFP), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), total body water (TBW), and extracellular water (ECW). The results showed that all body composition parameters were lowest in the endurance category. Fat composition was lowest in the endurance category but did not differ significantly between categories in male athletes. Meanwhile, in female athletes, there was a significant difference in FM between sports categories (p=0.009). FFM, SMM, TBW, and ECW differed significantly between categories (p<0.05). In female athletes, these variables were higher in the team sports category, as opposed to the power category among male athletes. This study concluded that there were differences in lean body mass composition between sport categories, while fat mass did not differ between sport categories in male athletes. This can be attributed to the differences in training programs and needs of each sport category in maximizing performance. These findings can provide advice to sports professionals that each sport category has its own body composition specifications.


healthy lifestyle, athlete, sports category

View full article
(PDF – 170KB)


Akinoǧlu, B., & Kocahan, T. (2019). Body composition and torso muscle strength relationship in athletes. Progress in Nutrition, 21(4), 1019–1028. https://doi.org/10.23751/pn.v21i4.8605

Campa, F., Matias, C., Gatterer, H., Toselli, S., Koury, J. C., Andreoli, A., … Silva, A. M. (2019). Classic Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Reference Values for Assessing Body Composition in Male and Female Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245066

Campa, F., Thomas, D. M., Watts, K., Clark, N., Baller, D., Morin, T., … Silva, A. M. (2022). Reference Percentiles for Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Athletes. Biology, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11020264

Campa, F., Toselli, S., Mazzilli, M., Gobbo, L. A., & Coratella, G. (2021). Assessment of Body Composition in Athletes : A Narrative Review of Available Methods with Special Reference to Quantitative and Qualitative Bioimpedance Analysis. Nutrients, 13(1620). https://doi.org/doi.org/10.3390/nu13051620

Chathuranga, W., & Perera, D. S. L. (2022). Relationship Between Body Composition and Sports Performances of Wushu Sanda Players Abstract : Journal of Sports and Physical Education, 9(4), 36–43. https://doi.org/10.9790/6737-09043643

Cullen, S., Fleming, J., Logue, D. M., O’Connor, J., Connor, B., Cleary, J., … Madigan, S. M. (2020). Anthropometric profiles of elite athletes. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2022.171.14

Degoutte, F., Jouanel, P., & Filaire, E. (2003). Energy demands during a judo match and recovery. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(3), 245–249. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.3.245

Dopsaj, M. M., Terzic, Z., & Nesic, G. (2018). Descriptive Body Composition Profile in Female Olympic Volleyball Medalists Defined Using Multichannel Bioimpedance Measurement : Rio 2016 Team Case Study. International Journal of Morphology, 36(2), 699–708. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022018000200699

Dopsaj, M., Zuoziene, I. J., Milic, R., Cherepov, E., Erlikh, V., Masiulis, N., … Vodicar, J. (2020). Body Composition in International Sprint Swimmers : Are There Any Relations with Performance ? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9464). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249464

Esco, M. R., Fedewa, M. V, Cicone, Z. S., Sinelnikov, O. A., Sekulic, D., & Holmes, C. J. (2018). Field-Based Performance Test are Related to Body Fat Percentage and Fat-Free Mass , But Not Body Mass Index, in Youth Soccer Player. Sports, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040105

Garthe, I., Raastad, T., Refsnes, P. E., & Sundgot-borgen, J. (2013). Effect of nutritional intervention on body composition and performance in elite athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(3), 295–303. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2011.643923

Gerodimos, V., Manou, V., & Kellis, E. (2005). Body composition characteristics of elite male basketball players. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 49, 115–126.

Glaister, M. (2005). Multiple Sprint Work. Sports Medicine, 35(9), 757–777. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535090-00003

Gonzales-Rave, J. M., Arija, A., & Clemente-Suarez, V. (2011). Seasonal Changes in Jump Performance and Body Composition in Women Volleyball Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(6), 1492–1501. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da77f6

Hasan, M. F., Bahri, S., & Adnyana, I. K. (2021). Identification of nutritional status and body composition in weightlifting athlete. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 21(4), 2308–2312. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2021.s4294

Holloszy, J. O., & Coyle, E. F. (2016). Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. Journal of Applied Physiology, 121(6), 831–838.

Ishida, A., Travis, S. K., & Stone, M. H. (2021). Associations of Body Composition , Maximum Strength , Power Characteristics with Sprinting , Jumping , and Intermittent Endurance Performance in Male Intercollegiate Soccer Players. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 6(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010007

Kutáč, P., & Sigmund, M. (2017). Assessment of body composition of female volleyball players of various performance levels. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(2), 556–562. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.02084

Lukaski, H., & Raymond-Pope, C. J. (2021). New Frontiers of Body Composition in Sport. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(7), 588–601. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1373-5881

Marques, M. C., Tillaar, R. Van, Vescovi, J. D., & Gonzales-Badillo, J. . (2008). Changes in Strength and Power Performance in Elite Senior Female Professional Volleyball Players During The In-Season: A Case Study. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1147–1155. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a42d0

Mooses, M., & Hackney, A. C. (2016). Anthropometrics and Body Composition in East African Runners: Potential Impact on Performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(4), 422–430. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0408

Nepocatych, S., Balilionis, G., & O’Neal, E. K. (2017). Analysis of dietary intake and body composition of female athletes over a competitive season. Montenegrin Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(2), 57–65. https://doi.org/10.26773/mjssm.2017.09.008

Nikolaidis, P. T., Afonso, J., & Busko, K. (2015). Differences in anthropometry , somatotype , body composition and physiological characteristics of female volleyball players by competition level. Sport Sciences for Health, 11, 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-014-0196-7

Rejeki, P. S., Pranoto, A., Rahmanto, I., Izzatunnisa, N., Yosika, G. F., Hernaningsih, Y., … Halim, S. (2023). The Positive Effect of Four-Week Combined Aerobic–Resistance Training on Body Composition and Adipokine Levels in Obese Females. Sports, 11(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports11040090

Shaw, G., & Mujika, I. (2017). Anthropometric Profiles of Elite Open Water Swimmers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2016-0741

Silva, A. M., Matias, C. N., Santos, D. A., Rocha, P. M., Minderico, C. S., & Sardinha, L. B. (2014). Increases in intracellular water explain strength and power improvements over a season. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(13), 1101–1105. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1371839

Slater, G., & Phillips, S. M. (2011). Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: Sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(1), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.574722

Slimani, M., Chaabene, M., Miarka, B., Franchini, E., Chamari, K., & Cheour, F. (2017). Kickboxing review : anthropometric , psychophysiological and activity profiles and injury epidemiology. Bology of Sport, 34(2), 185–196. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2017.65338

Srhoj, V., Marinović, M., & Rogulj, N. (2002). Position specific morphological characteristics of top-level male handball players. Collegium Antropologicum, 26(1), 219–227.

Thomas, D. T., Erdman, K. A., & Burke, L. M. (2016). American College of Sport Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(3), 543–568. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000852

Toselli, S. (2021). Body Composition and Physical Health in Sports Practice : An Editorial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4534). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094534" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094534">https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094534

Trinschek, J., Zieliński, J., & Kusy, K. (2020). Maximal oxygen uptake adjusted for skeletal muscle mass in competitive speed-power and endurance male athletes: Changes in a one-year training cycle. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(17), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176226

Winkler, T. W., Justice, A. E., Graff, M., Barata, L., Feitosa, M. F., Chu, S., … Loos, R. J. F. (2015). The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study. PLoS Genetics (Vol. 11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005378